Thermal Physics

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  • Lecture 0. [Invitation to Thermodynamics]
  • Lecture 1. [Zeroth Law and Thermodynamic systems]
  • Lecture 2. [Equivalent PVT Systems]
  • Lecture 3. [First & Second Law of Thermodynamics]
  • Lecture 4. [Carnot's Theorem & Carnot Engine]
  • Lecture 5. [Entropy, Disorder, Information]
  • Lecture 6. [Practical Engines]
  • Lecture 7. [Maxwell Relations]
  • Lecture 8. [Clausius-Clapeyron's equation]
  • Lecture 9. [T-dS relations]
  • Lecture 10. [Joule-Thomson Effect]
  • Lecture 11. [Thermodynamic Potentials]
  • Lecture 12. [Phase Equilibria]

Numerical Problems


  1. Experiments with Newtonian (water) and Non-Newtonian (Oobleck) fluids - fun with science.
  2. The major difference between free expansion and natural process (isothermal or adiabatic) is that the state (entropy) of the heat source (surrounding) does not change, so change in entropy of universe = change in entropy gained/lost by object + change in entropy gained/lost by heat source (=0) = change in entropy gained/lost by object.
  3. Read about Clausius Inequality ∮ dQ/T ≤ 0.
  4. Shannon's 1948 paper on entropy: PartI-2 Page-4 (The Discrete Source Of Information) .

Study Materials

  1. Heat and Thermodynamics - M.W. Zemansky & R.H. Dittman.
  2. Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory & Statistical Thermodynamics - Sears & Salinger.
  3. Concepts in Thermal Physics - S.J. Blundell and K.M. Blundell.
  4. Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics - F. Reif.
  5. Feynman Lectures on Physics (Vol 1) - R.P. Feynman .
  6. Statistical Physics Part-1 (Vol 5) - L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz.
  7. Thermostatistics and Thermodynamics - H.B. Callen .
  8. Thermodynamics - E. Fermi .
  9. Basic Thermodynamics - E. Guha.
  10. Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics - Carl S. Helrich.
  11. Thermal Physics - A. Kumar and S.P. Taneja.
  12. Elements of Classical Thermodynamics - A.B. Pippard.
  13. Equilibrium Thermodynamics - C.J. Adkins.
  14. Principles of Thermodynamics - M. Kaufman.


  1. Introduction to Thermodynamics:
    • Zeroth and First Law of Thermodynamics: Extensive and intensive Thermodynamic Variables, Thermodynamic Equilibrium, Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics & Concept of Temperature. Concept of Work & Heat, State Functions, Internal Energy and First Law of Thermodynamics. Its differential form, First Law & various processes. Applications of First Law: General Relation between CP and CV, Work Done during Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes, Compressibility and Expansion Coefficient.
    • Second Law of Thermodynamics: Reversible and Irreversible process with examples. Conversion of Work into Heat and Heat into Work. Heat Engines. Carnot's Cycle, Carnot engine & efficiency. Refrigerator & coefficient of performance, 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck and Clausius Statements and their Equivalence.
    • Carnot's Theorem. Applications of Second Law of Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic Scale of Temperature and its Equivalence to Perfect Gas Scale.
    • Entropy: Concept of Entropy, Clausius Theorem. Clausius Inequality, Second Law of Thermodynamics in terms of Entropy. Entropy of a perfect gas. Principle of Increase of Entropy. Entropy Changes in Reversible and Irreversible processes with examples. Entropy of the Universe. Entropy Changes in Reversible and Irreversible Processes. Principle of Increase of Entropy. Temperature-Entropy diagrams for Cycle. Third Law of Thermodynamics. Unattainability of Absolute Zero.
  2. Thermodynamic Potentials:
    • Thermodynamic Potentials: Internal Energy, Enthalpy, Helmholtz Free Energy, Gibb's Free Energy. Their Definitions, Properties and Applications. Surface Films and Variation of Surface Tension with Temperature. Magnetic Work, Cooling due to adiabatic demagnetization, First and second order Phase Transitions with examples, Clausius Clapeyron Equation and Ehrenfest equations.
    • Maxwell's Thermodynamic Relations: Derivations and applications of Maxwell's Relations, Maxwell's Relations:
      • Clausius Clapeyron equation.
      • Values of Cp-Cv.
      • T-dS Equations.
      • Joule-Kelvin coefficient for Ideal and Van der Waal Gases.
      • Energy equations.
      • Change of Temperature during Adiabatic Process.
    • Joule-Thomson Porous Plug Experiment: Joule-Thomson Effect for Real and Van der Waal Gases. Temperature of Inversion. Joule Thomson Cooling.