Thermal Physics
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Topics
- Introduction to Thermodynamics:
- Zeroth and First Law of Thermodynamics: Extensive and intensive Thermodynamic Variables, Thermodynamic
Equilibrium, Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics & Concept of Temperature. Concept of Work & Heat, State Functions,
Internal Energy and First Law of Thermodynamics. Its differential form, First Law & various processes.
Applications of First Law: General Relation between CP and CV, Work Done during Isothermal and Adiabatic
Processes, Compressibility and Expansion Coefficient.
- Second Law of Thermodynamics: Reversible and Irreversible process with examples. Conversion of Work
into Heat and Heat into Work. Heat Engines. Carnot's Cycle, Carnot engine & efficiency. Refrigerator &
coefficient of performance, 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck and Clausius Statements and their
Equivalence.
- Carnot's Theorem. Applications of Second Law of Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic Scale of Temperature
and its Equivalence to Perfect Gas Scale.
- Entropy: Concept of Entropy, Clausius Theorem. Clausius Inequality, Second Law of Thermodynamics in
terms of Entropy. Entropy of a perfect gas. Principle of Increase of Entropy. Entropy Changes in Reversible
and Irreversible processes with examples. Entropy of the Universe. Entropy Changes in Reversible and
Irreversible Processes. Principle of Increase of Entropy. Temperature-Entropy diagrams for Cycle. Third
Law of Thermodynamics. Unattainability of Absolute Zero.
- Thermodynamic Potentials:
- Thermodynamic Potentials: Internal Energy, Enthalpy, Helmholtz Free Energy, Gibb's Free Energy. Their
Definitions, Properties and Applications. Surface Films and Variation of Surface Tension with Temperature.
Magnetic Work, Cooling due to adiabatic demagnetization, First and second order Phase Transitions with
examples, Clausius Clapeyron Equation and Ehrenfest equations.
- Maxwell's Thermodynamic Relations: Derivations and applications of Maxwell's Relations, Maxwell's Relations:
- Clausius Clapeyron equation.
- Values of Cp-Cv.
- T-dS Equations.
- Joule-Kelvin coefficient for Ideal and Van der Waal Gases.
- Energy equations.
- Change of Temperature during Adiabatic Process.
- Joule-Thomson Porous Plug Experiment: Joule-Thomson Effect for Real and Van der Waal Gases. Temperature of
Inversion. Joule Thomson Cooling.