Thermal Physics II
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- Basic concepts: Microscopic and macroscopic points of view, thermodynamic variables of a system,
State function, exact and inexact differentials.
- First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal equilibrium, Zeroth law and the concept of temperature,
Thermodynamic equilibrium, internal energy, external work, quasistatic process, first law of thermodynamics
and applications including magnetic systems, specific heats and their ratio, isothermal and adiabatic
changes in perfect and real gases.
- Second law of Thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes, indicator diagram, Carnot's
cycle's efficiency, Carnot's theorem, Kelvin's scale of temperature, relation to perfect gas scale, second
law of thermodynamics - different formulations and their equivalence, Clausius inequality, entropy, change of
entropy in simple reversible and irreversible processes, entropy and disorder, equilibrium and entropy
principle, principle of degradation of energy.
- Thermodynamic Functions: Enthalpy, Helmholtz and Gibbs' free energies, Legendre transformations,
Maxwell's relations and simple deductions using these relations, thermodynamic equilibrium and free energies.
- Change of state: Equilibrium between phases, triple point: Gibb's phase rule and simple applications,
First and higher order phase transitions, Ehrenfest criterion, Clausius-Clapeyron's equation, Joule-Thomson
- The major difference between free expansion and natural process (isothermal or
adiabatic) is that the state (entropy) of the heat source (surrounding) does not change, so change in entropy
of universe = change in entropy gained/lost by object + change in entropy gained/lost by heat source
(=0) = change in entropy gained/lost by object.
- Read about Clausius Inequality
∮ dQ/T ≤ 0.
- Shannon's 1948 paper on entropy:
PartI-2 Page-4 (The Discrete Source Of Information) .