Thermal Physics II

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  • Lecture 0. [Invitation to Thermal Physics II]
  • Lecture 1. [Zeroth Law and Thermodynamic systems]
  • Lecture 2. [Equivalent PVT Systems]
  • Lecture 3. [First & Second Law of Thermodynamics]
  • Lecture 4. [Carnot's Theorem & Carnot Engine]
  • Lecture 5. [Entropy, Disorder, Information]
  • Lecture 6. [Practical Engines]
  • Lecture 7. [Maxwell Relations]
  • Lecture 8. [Clausius-Clapeyron's equation]
  • Lecture 9. [T-dS relations]
  • Lecture 10. [Joule-Thomson Effect]
  • Lecture 11. [Thermodynamic Potentials]
  • Lecture 12. [Phase Equilibria]

Numerical Problems

Study Materials

  1. Thermal Physics - A.B. Gupta & H.P. Roy.
  2. Heat and Thermodynamics - M.W. Zemansky & R.H. Dittman .
  3. Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics - F. Reif .
  4. Feynman Lectures on Physics (Vol 1) - R.P. Feynman .
  5. Statistical Physics Part-1 (Vol 5) - L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz.
  6. Thermodynamics - E. Fermi .
  7. Thermostatistics and Thermodynamics - H.B. Callen .


  1. Basic concepts: Microscopic and macroscopic points of view, thermodynamic variables of a system, State function, exact and inexact differentials.
  2. First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal equilibrium, Zeroth law and the concept of temperature, Thermodynamic equilibrium, internal energy, external work, quasistatic process, first law of thermodynamics and applications including magnetic systems, specific heats and their ratio, isothermal and adiabatic changes in perfect and real gases.
  3. Second law of Thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes, indicator diagram, Carnot's cycle's efficiency, Carnot's theorem, Kelvin's scale of temperature, relation to perfect gas scale, second law of thermodynamics - different formulations and their equivalence, Clausius inequality, entropy, change of entropy in simple reversible and irreversible processes, entropy and disorder, equilibrium and entropy principle, principle of degradation of energy.
  4. Thermodynamic Functions: Enthalpy, Helmholtz and Gibbs' free energies, Legendre transformations, Maxwell's relations and simple deductions using these relations, thermodynamic equilibrium and free energies.
  5. Change of state: Equilibrium between phases, triple point: Gibb's phase rule and simple applications, First and higher order phase transitions, Ehrenfest criterion, Clausius-Clapeyron's equation, Joule-Thomson effect.


  1. The major difference between free expansion and natural process (isothermal or adiabatic) is that the state (entropy) of the heat source (surrounding) does not change, so change in entropy of universe = change in entropy gained/lost by object + change in entropy gained/lost by heat source (=0) = change in entropy gained/lost by object.
  2. Read about Clausius Inequality ∮ dQ/T ≤ 0.
  3. Shannon's 1948 paper on entropy: PartI-2 Page-4 (The Discrete Source Of Information) .