Thermal Physics I
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Topics
- Kinetic Theory of Gases: Basic assumptions of kinetic theory, Ideal gas approximations, deduction
of perfect gas laws, Maxwell's distribution law in velocity and energy, root mean square and most
probable speeds, Finite size of molecules: Collision probability, Distribution of free paths and
mean free path from Maxwell's distribution, Degrees of freedom, equipartition of energy.
- Transport Phenomena: Viscosity, thermal conduction and diffusion in gases, Brownian motion, Einstein's
theory, Perrin's work, determination of Avogadro number.
- Real Gases: Nature of intermolecular interaction: isotherms of real gases, van der Waals' equation
of state, Other equations of state, critical constants of a gas, law of corresponding states, Virial
coefficients, Boyle temperature.
- Conduction of Heat: Thermal conductivity, diffusivity, Fourier's equation for heat conduction - its
solution for rectilinear and radial (spherical and cylindrical) flow of heat.
- Radiation: Spectral emissive and absorptive powers, Kirchoff's law, Blackbody radiation, energy density,
radiation pressure, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Newton's law of cooling, Planck's law.
Remarks
- Newton's law of cooling example: Adding creme to coffee.
- Numerical computation of (a) Heat Convection (Hot plate in air),
(b) Heat Conduction in foam,
(c) Heat Radiation in Flare ignition.
- Experiments on Critical Opalescence (1910).
Read also about
Einstein's work on critical opalescence.
- Pedagogic article on Einstein's legacy, by (a) SDG,
(b) DC.
- Einstein's paper: Brownian Movement ,
Kubo's paper: Fluctuation
Dissipation Theorem, Chandrasekhar's paper: Stochastic Process.
- Experiments with Newtonian
(water) and Non-Newtonian (Oobleck) fluids - fun with science.
- If you do want to differentiate between different integration constant for u, v, w as (say) A,B,C, then also its equally valid.
Notice then, dN_{u,v,w} = NABC e^{-bc2} du dv dw, and then in integration over this gives,
ABC =(b/pi)^{3/2} (instead of A^{3} = (b/pi)^{3/2}). After
substituting b, you'll get Maxwell's distribution back.
- Don't get confused with (i) number density(n) & number (N) as they appear in both sides of the equation and
can be easily transformed back and forth. Similarly, density and number density differs only by "m" and for unit mass
both is equivalent.